Located in the northwest Florida ten miles from the Alabama state line on its panhandle, Pensacola, rich historical, military aircraft, as well as natural attractions, all with signature sun, sand, sea and water sports in Florida.
Although St. Augustine, on the east and the Atlantic coast of Florida, considered the oldest city in the United States and took root after the admiral Pedro Menendez de Aviles swam to it and created a colony of Pensacola in the west of the state, or in the Gulf of Mexico side, could have claimed the title when his own settlement continued.
Six years ago, in August 1559, the Spanish explorer Tristan de Luna dropped his anchor in the vicinity of a local tribe called «Panzacola» for the «long-haired people" for the purpose of Luis de Velasco, the Mexican Deputy Spain procedure for creating settlements in the Gulf.
Well of and ready, it was equipped with 11 ships and 1500 brought the unfortunate colonists, among whom were African slaves and Mexican Indians. But the story has been forced to take the wrong fork in the road, when on February storm destroyed eight ships de Luna on 19 September.
However, in an attempt to rescue the expedition, he sent one of them to Veracruz, Mexico, to call for help, leaving immigrant existence drags ashore and survive, draining supplies they brought. However, instead of having to re-autotune colonists, ships arriving a year later, only rescued the survivors, taking them to Havana, leaving little more than a military outpost until the spring of 1561. By August, a handful of soldiers refused new land and returned to Mexico, considering it too dangerous for the settlement.
Despite the fact that knowledge is at the time a claim to fame as the oldest continuous city of the US, he will never be able to do.
It would be almost 150 years old, in 1698, in fact, that foreign forces again seek to gain a foothold in this case, Spain has established a successful garrison that would become a modern Pensacola and objectives laid out in this colonial city.
As it often happened throughout the history of the earth, once claimed, they became the prize others sought, often by military means, and Pensacola was no exception. The Spaniards initially seemed the French in May 1719, but it was almost the end of his possessions. France, Spain, the UK and Spain will once again take over for the next century, until he finally ceded Florida to the United States in 1821. Since Confederation also "took residency," Pensacola is considered to be the "city of five flags".
Much of his nearly 500-year history preserved and can be experienced in the historical center of Pensacola, which is run by the Historical Trust UWF, is the organization with the support of the University of West Florida, and is comprised of 27 of the & # 39 sites on the National Register of Historic Places .
Reception, only investing for a week, includes a tour and entrance to the public and tickets are available at Tivoli High House.
Important structures much. Sevilla area, for example 39 & # is the old settlement center and served as one end area British route ending its twin, Plaza Ferdinand VII. It was here that General Andrew Jackson took on the territory of West Florida from Spain in 1821 and the first to raise the US flag.
Small remains of the Fort George, the aim of the battle of the American Revolution in Pensacola, with & # 39 is a symbol of the British occupation from 1763 to one thousand seven hundred eighty-one.
The original house abound, including Panton Cottage Julie 1805 Laval House, 1871 Dorr House and 1890 Lear-Rocheblave home.
Old church of Christ, located on the area of Seville and built in 1824 by slave labor, with the & # 39 is the oldest of its kind in the state still occupy their original position.
There are also several museums: T.T. Wentworth, Jr., Florida State Museum, which was built in 1908 and originally served as City Hall, Children's Museum, Pensacola, Pensacola Voices multicultural center and Trade Museum.
Although not technically part of the historic district of Pensacola, Pensacola Grand Hotel is located on the site of the Louisville and Nashville Depot Passenger Railroad, which itself was built in 1912 to replace the original 1882 L & N Union Station, Pensacola served for 58 years. Now on the National Register of Historic Places.
Restored to its original splendor i converted into a hotel with a glass tower with 15 floors, it retains much of its early decorations, including the French roof clay tile and ceramic mosaic tile floor and decorated with antiques, such as a solid, a drop cast Bronze lights and antique furniture.
His magnificent "1912 Restaurant" is located on the ground floor, there is the entrance door hit from London, cast bronze chandelier in the French style of Philadelphia, 1885 beveled glass from Victorian hotel in Scranton and a gear-shaped grill with Lloyd's of London.
Marine Air Station Pensacola:
There are several important sites at the Naval Aviation in Pensacola, which can be accessed gate visitor and requires identification, such as a license to enter
Located yourself in the place of the yard the Navy, which was built in 1825, he began as a training aircraft station at the beginning of the First World War with nine officers, 23 engineers, eight aircraft and ten beach-backed tent, and was considered the first of its kind.
Radically expands due to the Second World War, he trained 1100 students a month, all of which flew over two million hours. After his Naval Air Basic Training Command relocated its headquarters from Corpus Christi, Texas, to Pensacola, pure jet aircraft were included in the curriculum. Today, 12,000 active military, 9,000 of whom receive aviation training, appointed by the station.
The world-famous National Naval Aviation Museum, is also located here, with the & # 39 is the biggest and one of the most visited attractions of Florida. It did not start as a tourist sight, but instead as a means, including naval aviation history in the cadet training plans, for which there was not enough time or funding for traditional books and study-modality.
On the & # 39; an object, originally posted in 8500-square-foot wood frame building, originally from the Second World War, became the center of the selection, acquisition, storage and display of aircraft and artifacts that represent the heritage and development services industry. It opened its doors June 8, 1963.
Constantly expanding, now it has 700 aircraft in its collection, which are reflected in his 11 other official museum of the Navy across the country, some 150 ancient restored still exhibited here after new about & # 39; object 37 outdoor acres and 350,000 square feet of indoor space was completed. Admission is free.
Divided into the south wing, the west wing on the second floor mezzanine, and a separate hangar One, he traces the evolution of naval aviation and aircraft operated from its inception to the latest Middle East conflict.
A triad-1, for example, so named because when working in three air spheres (wing), water (floats) and portions (wheels). Nieuport 28, the section of the First World War contributed to the experimentation of an aircraft carrier, while the mammoth Navy-Curtiss NC-4, on the eve of the exhibition Golden Age, was the first to cross the Atlantic from Trepassey, Newfoundland, on the Portuguese Azores.
The speed of the jet fighters during the Cold War represented by such species as McDonnell F2H-4 Banshee, the North American FJ-2 Fury and the Russian MiG-15.
Centerpiece West Wing with & # 39 is the «USS Cabot 'island and a copy of his carrier deck, which is surrounded by an extensive collection of mainly World War II aircraft of the war, including the Grumman F4F-3 the Wildcat in Vought-Sikorsky FG-1D Corsair, and General Motors (Grumman) TBM Avenger.
Of the many exhibits on the mezzanine of the museum, which itself comes out as the south and west wings and can even be accessed airliner ground ladder, can not be either, which offer higher contrast with respect to one another than those dedicated to lighter than air aviation and space exploration.
Evolved from a spherical tank for the first time successfully flown by the Montgolfier brothers in 1783 and in the first case, the airships were large, controlled balloons, which reached under the & # 39; volume forces on the principle of buoyancy of themselves, but includes engines for propulsion and rudders and elevators respectively yaw (steering) and longitudinal (pitch) axis of the control. Suspended gondola housed the crew and passengers. Rigid types of internal framework features are not required are non-rigid, such as airships.
Gondola or control cars with L-8 Navy and World War II-era K-47 airships in the display. Recently, speaking May 19, 1943 in Moffett Field, California, was a domestic for & # 39; the amount of 425,000 cubic feet.
In the second, or a space, so a replica of the Freedom 7 Mercury space capsule, the original of which was launched at 116.5 nautical miles and the air / space carries for 14.8 minutes, is the contribution of Naval Aviation in the space program, because the military marine aviator Alan B. Shepard became the first American to enter this area on my 5 1961.
In addition, the display of the original Skylab Command Module II, which circled the space station Skylab for 28 days during the period from May to June 1973, driven by a three-member, all-Navy crew, he set several records, including the longest manned space flight, the longest distance and the greatest mass of docking in space.
It is seen as a mezzanine and the ground floor with the & # 39 is 75 feet high, 10,000 square foot Blue Angels Atrium connecting South and West and has four wings Douglas A-4 in the diving Skayhkov diamond is colored dark blue team aerobatic liveries.
Hangar Bay One of them, with 55,000 square feet of exhibition space, especially aircraft such as the Sikorsky VH-3 Sea King, which is transported presidents Nixon and Ford for the 1970s; Douglas R4D-5L Skytrain, which was the first to land on the Antarctic South Pole in 1956; and Grumman F-14D Tomcat, a supersonic, swing-wing fighter that went to the last combat mission.
Service users include additional excursions, laser-powered giant screen cinema showing several daily movies, gift shop and two Cubi Bar Cafe.
Flight practice famed Blue Angels flight demonstration team can be viewed at the Museum Flight Line, just north of the museum.
Another historic attraction on a & # 39 grounds of naval aviation is Pensacola Lighthouse.
Because of the strategic importance of Pensacola Harbor, Congress appropriated $ 6,000 in March 1823 to build a lighthouse, selecting a suitable place in June, but was temporarily replaced by floating an alternative, «Aurora Borealis», until the construction was not completed. Transferred from the mouth of the Mississippi River, it was located behind the western part of the island of Santa Rosa.
Permanent structure, 40 feet wide, the white brick tower with ten whale fat lamps, each of which have been reinforced 14-inch reflector, was first lit on December 20 of the following year and allowed sailing ships to send to it and then enter the harbor.
Despite what appeared to be more useful than the sailing boat he was replaced, he began to reveal their shortcomings in 1850: it was blocked by the trees on the island of Santa Rosa, and her light was too dim to be an effective means of navigation, prompting again set lighthouse Council to recommend a replacement, which will rise at least 150 feet in height.
In response to his request, Congress appropriated $ 25,000 in 1854 and $ 30,000 two years later. Construction of the new & # 39 facility, located half a mile west of the original, was completed in 1858. The growth of 159 feet from the base of a 30-foot diameter and tapering to the top at 15 feet, it was first lit on New Year's Eve 1859 at the Guardian Palmes. He showed the most powerful on the & # 39; objects, available first-order Fresnel one.
Currently listed on the National Register of Historic Places, a lighthouse Pensacola offers the visitor a glimpse into the mid-19th century, the world guardian of life, with the store to the Visitor Center and Museum, located in 1890 Carriage House, Richard C. Callaway Museum in 1869 keepers quarter, and the 177-step lighthouse that you can climb the views of Pensacola Bay.
Another historically important attraction at the Naval Air Station Pensacola Fort Barrancas.
"Located on a bluff overlooking the bay of Pensacola, Fort Barrancas was built to protect the United States from foreign invaders," according to the National Park Service. "Once considered vital to national defense, today Fort Barrancas illustrates the evolution of military technology and American values. "
Soon after Spain ceded Florida USA, the US Navy selected Pensacola Bay as a major Gulf Coast Navy Yard and at the same time with the decision of Engineers Officers Corps was sent to explore the coastline with a view to the construction of fortifications to protect himself Navy Yard.
Built on the ruins of the 1798 Spanish Fort is Fort San Carlos de-Barrancas- «Barrancas» with & # 39 is the Spanish word for "bluff" is the third such fortification was the bay. The current, 1797-Batteria de San Antonio has been saved and changed.
Taking shape in the period between March 21 and September 21 in the hands of enslaved laborers who worked from sunrise to sunset, in his great arms were included, including ten 24-pounders.
Although it was built as a defensive structure, it has been only in battle during the Civil War.
Due to new developments in the guns and naval warships, the US government began to assess proposals for new coastal defenses in 1885 and after the curtain closed the Second World War, he was declared surplus in 1947.
The trail leads from the visitor center to the actual kite-shaped fort, whose characteristics encompass introduction and counterscarp, moat, under the & # 39; volume bridge, sally port, security room, opened the parade area, and the water battery. The tunnel connected two of the latter. Cannon shells fired from the battery itself of water were used for the rebound to the harbor and the ships were in their conduit.
Fortress thickness of four feet by 20 feet high walls, consisting of six million bricks, decorated with arches and ceiling prices.
Neighboring Advanced Redoubt, built between 1845 and 1870, defended the north side of the peninsula, accommodation Pensacola Navy Yard.
Bridge- and dam-linked through Gulf Breeze, on the mainland, Pensacola, eight miles from downtown Pensacola and access to Interstate 110 South, a narrow portion of sugary sand on the bar & # 39; EPHA Santa Rosa Island, overlooking the emerald waters of the Gulf and the Gulf of Mexico and offers activities related to the ocean, such as swimming, sunbathing, fishing, scuba diving, sailing and diving. Fiery red, green, and purple sunsets paint the sky on a regular basis.
Beach hotel many fronts, such as Surf and Sand, Margaritaville-Beach and Island Resort Portofino, along with well-known names such as Hampton Inn, Hilton, Holiday Inn, SpringHill Suites and Days Inn. Florida indicative seafood restaurant, with indoor and outdoor dining overlooking the water, include such as Island Grill Hemingway, flounder in the Chowder House, Grand Marlin, Pensacola Shaggy, and Peg Leg Pete's.
Stretching 1,471 feet in the water, the Gulf Pier Pensacola provides bluefish fishing, Pompano, redfish, Spanish mackerel and spotted sea trout. Flounder can not be excluded.
The self-guided Footprints in the sand Eco Tour, marked with informative signs, gives the opportunity to learn about the local plant and animal life, including dolphins, sharks, turtles, birds, fish and flowers. Each of them is explained by the different environmental issues.
Pensacola Beach with a & # 39 is part of the Gulf Islands National Seashore & # 39; e, which itself stretches for 160 miles from Fort Walton Beach, Florida, in Cat Island, Mississippi, and includes a bar & # 39 ; ernyya island, marine forests, sea, sleeveless living rivers, and historic forts. The headquarters of the park, offering orientation films and an exhibition of the Living Naval Oaks Area, located in Gulf Breeze, on the island between the mainland and Pensacola.
Shaped in the Gulf of Mexico, the National Seashore & # 39; and which retains pockets of American history and culture, and encapsulates the visitor to the flora and fauna of Florida. The void formed by water and air, for example dolphins, sea stars surface float and pelican and seagulls allow wind to carry them on the panorama.
Адзін з гістарычных запаведнікаў астравоў заліва Нацыянальнага Прыморскага з'яўляецца Форт Пікенс, размешчаны на заходняй ускрайку выспы Сант-Ружа прама насупраць ўваход Пенсакола Bay Harbor з Форта Барранкаса. Названы ў гонар брыгаднага генерала Эндру Пікенс, патрыёта, які змагаўся з адзнакай ў Паўднёвай Караліне падчас вайны, яна была самай вялікай цаглянай структуры на Мексіканскім заліве.
Трасіроўка сваё паходжанне ад 1821, калі трэцяя сістэма прыбярэжных фартоў была пашырана, каб уключыць абарону Пенсакола Bay і яго мацерыка прыбярэжных суполак, яна прыняла другарадную мэта чатыры гады праз, калі заканадаўчы орган стварыць ярд ваенна-марскога флоту і дэпо быў прыняты. У рамках трыо абароны, ён быў прызваны ахоўваць заходнюю частку вострава Санта-Ружа ў супрацоўніцтве з умацаваньнямі абрывы на поўнач ад канала і на ўсходнім канцы Perdido Key.
Яго будаўніцтва, пад кіраўніцтвам ЗША Інжынерны корпус арміі, пачалося ў 1829 годзе пасля таго, як урад набыло 998 акраў зямлі і пяцікутнік-вобразнай структуры, пабудаваныя з больш чым 21,5 мільёна цаглін і аснашчаны больш чым 200 гарматамі, было завершана пяць гадоў праз.
«(Рабочыя), якія выкарыстоўваюцца будаўнічыя матэрыялы, такія як вапна, вада і пясок змяшаць раствор, піламатэрыялы для ростверка і пабудаваць прычалы, будаўнічыя лесу, і дапаможныя будынкі; свінцовых лісты воданепранікальных казематы арак і для жолабаў і вадасцёкаў; граніту для прыступак і траверсы камяні; медныя лісты, бары, і прыстасаванне для прымянення ў парашковых часопісах; (і) цэгла для асноўнай працы і контрэскарпа, "у адпаведнасці з Абслугоўваннем Нацыянальнага парка.
Патрабаванне гарнізона 500 мужчын падчас вайны, але здольна змясціць падвойнае, што лік у надзвычайных сітуацыях, структура пяць бастыёна, якая складаецца з аднаго яруса казэматаў і Барбет яруса, была здольная развязаць кольца агню ад яго мористой-абліцоўвання сцены.
У выпадку, толькі ў барацьбе з ім калі-небудзь адчуваў адбылася падчас грамадзянскай вайны.
Сёння наведвальнікі ўсё яшчэ ўвесці Форт Пікенс праз зыходныя вылазкі пост, галоўны ўваход забяспечанага з цяжкімі дубовымі дзвярыма. Тынкоўка падшэўкі чвэрць служыла як рэзідэнцыі і бальнічныя палаты. Арачныя казематы пры ўмове, абароненыя артылерыйскіх пазіцый і базы для другога ўзроўню гарматы. Тры асноўныя камеры, кожная з якіх утрымоўвае 1000 фунтаў пораху, былі злучаныя сістэмай тунэля. Парашковыя часопісы, якія захоўваюць чорны крыніца харчавання форта, былі драўлянымі падшэўкай, каб трымаць іх сухімі і неабходнасць туфлі пакрытых ботаў салдат, якія ўвайшлі іх прадухілення магчымага узгарання ад іскраў. У пакоі генератара была размяшчэннем паравых генератараў, устаноўленых ў 1903 годзе для забеспячэння электраэнергіі пражэктараў і іншага сучаснага абсталявання.
Контрэскарп фармаваўся сухое мацаванне, каб абараніць форт ад наземных нападаў. Дажджавая вада была сабрана і захоўваецца ў цыстэрнах для піцця. І вежа бастыён, паказваючы непасрэдна праз канал, забяспечваецца абарона гавані.